440 years ago
In a judicial transcript from 1576 there’s a windmill for Kühnitzsch documented. 1588 we can find a next entry in the Record of the Windmills. In the cartography of the first Saxon land surveyor Georg Christian von Oeder (1728 - 1791) there’s a windmill displayed on the quarry mountain. 1616 the line „den 11. Januarii ist Benedix Nysio, Windmüller allhier, eine junge Tochter mit Namens Maria getauft worden [...]“ is added to the church register and so we have the first indication of a miller. 1620 he’s reported again at his son Benedictus Dionysius‘ baptism.
DEVASTATION INSIDE THE MILL
1637 reports the manor manager Paul Schöffler that inside the windmill of Kühnitzsch and the watermill of Hohburg a devastation has taken place. The wing doors have been lost in fire, the ropes were taken off. Until Michaeli, 29th September 1638 it stood empty, after that a miller was accepted again.
1657 Georg Preyll rents the windmill from Hans Georg von Plötz, the owner of the manor. From 1662 to 1715 the following lessees are reported in the chronicle: Hans Hindel, Martin Sommer, Christian Laue, Samuel Dietrich. In the year 1672 there’s the first indication of a mill.
On 25th Februar 1710 a terrible accident occurred in the mill. The 41-years old farmer Jacob Delling from Körlitz is killed by the cog wheel during corn grinding. His funeral has taken place on 3rd March in Körlitz.
LUGENHEIM'S - NEW OWNERS
From 1721 Michael Lugenheim is the new owner of the mill. He and his son have been delegated by the Wurzen convent council Joachim Siegmund von Plötz von Hans Haubold von Lüttichau to build a mill at manor side in the neighboring Zschorna, cause the father as his subject already run the mill of Kühnitzsch .
According to the Alphabetische[n] Verzeichnis aller in dem Churfürstenthum Sachsen und in denen dazu gehörigen incorporirten Landen befindlichen Schrift- und Amtsäßigen [...] from 1791 we know that the mill has one grinding pass at that time.
About today's mill
Only 1812 our present mill is built. The engraved date MDCCCXII in the frame of the mill provides proof of this. Johann Gottlob Lugenheim bought the new mill from Johann Gottlob Heyde in the following year, for the price of 442 taler, 23 groschen and 8 pfennings. It could thus be the case that he was the miller of the post mill after Michael Lugenheim, Heyde was at least the owner. It’s reported that the mill has two grinding passes. To the mill belongs: a residential building, a retirement house and barn, furthermore four fields, 20 Rods field in the Trebelshain area.
On 5th December 1823 the miller's wife Johanna Sophie Lugenheim (née Sliex) dies. Since the death of the miller Johann Gottlob Lugenheim on 20th June 1845, the mill is being auctioned off on 8th April 1845. The results are 366,25 taler for the land and 952,75 taler for mill and buildings.
THE HIRSCH FAMILY
Johann Gottlieb Hirsch bought the mill on 25th October 1868 for 790 taler. This first miller to the Hirsch family came from Belgern in the area of Torgau. After his death his widow married the miller Karl Löwe from Bockwitz, area of Torgau. It is significant that the mill stood in the family in all these years and it never came into foreign possession. On 19th June 1878 the mill was struck by a cold lightning.
Grinding prices 1891
160 pound rye are 115 pound of flour + 47 pound bran.
The grinding money is 25 pfennig.
Let grind coarsely 100 pound costs 55 pfennig.
The miller Karl Löwe died in 1893. So Franz-Richard Hirsch (born 14th June 1868) became the next, who took possession of the mill for 8400 marks as well as the five hectares of field. He is the son of the widow Hirsch from her first marriage. He managed the mill like his forebears until his dead in the year 1904.
In that year Bernhard Hugo Hirsch (born 1875) took over the reins from his father. In the next generation from 1936 the mill and its field finally was managed by master miller Alfred Hirsch. The field always provides nutrition of the milling families, cause solely from milling they were unable to maintain them. The millers got their work orders from farmers of Kühnitzsch. But also from other villages people came to benefit from the millers services.
In operation, 1935
Post mill 1932/ 1933, Photo: SLUB Dresden, Deutsche Fotothek, Günter Rapp
THE PROGRESS FINDS ITS WAY
Alfred Hirsch immediately invested in a two-stroke diesel engine to power one grinding pass. In a manner of speaking it is a valve-less 5000 ccm water-cooled, 12 horsepower strong hot-bulb engine of the R12 range from HATZ company with 450 RPM, construction year 1926. From that point onwards, to grind coarsely was now independent of weather conditions. Before that the engine was used as a brick machine in the pottery factory of Karl Günder in Lohr am Main (Weisenau).
The HATZ engine finally was replaced by an electric motor due to the need to remain competitive. Unfortunately, this one was sold to an unknown owner and never been found either.
SECOND WORLD WAR & CAPTIVITY
During Alfred Hirsch did his military service, the Sudeten German resettler Schönberner leased the mill until his dead in the following year 1945. There he was deadly injured by shots.
1948 Erner Zahn leased the mill. After Alfred Hirsch was released from being a prisoner of war, he operated a roller mill on the first floor oft he mill to grind grain.
Alfred Hirsch (1907 - 1981) as soldier in August 1940, photo: Gerhard Weber
Facts about the new drive
Original HATZ Engine. This hot-bulb engine uses fuel- and crude oil for engine fuel purposes. It‘s pumped-in through a nozzle directly into the cylinder during the movement against the head. The ignition is activated which causes the formation of combustion gases and let it perform work through its extension.
The advantages of this system are its simple design, long life, low fuel consumption at that time, ultra-simple operation without requiring any maintenance and right or left rotation without reversing. One disadvantage of this model is the preheating by hand for engine starting. It’s done with lowlamp or primer and, furthermore, for its usage there are some provisions. When starting the engine it could be that the direction of rotation may it's not correct. An additional focus is directed at temperature control. At high speeds you must have a look at overheating, and vice versa, that the engine getting not too cold during low speed.
(Source: HATZ data sheet Type R; Brix Adolf "Bootsbau: Praktischer Schiffbau" 1929)
These two pictures were painted by A. Brush in the post-war period 1946.
As reward he has earned a bread.
Forces of nature
Post mill and homestead in May 1975, photo: SLUB Dresden, Deutsche Fotothek, Günter Rapp
In August 1963 a lighting strikes the mill again, fortunately it was a cold strike which hasn‘t ignited.
The mill operated until 1974, and finally was only able to grind coarsely. In this year a powerful storm had been raging Kühnitzsch and released the brake of the post mill. All 80 hornbeam teeth of the big cogwheel broke off one by one. The drive gear of the big grinding pass was badly damaged, too.
From the album of the miller's family
Alfred Hirsch, 1978
Miller's wife Selma Hirsch (2nd wife of Hugo Hirsch), around 1968
Fortschritt ZT 300 with four share turning plough, around 1970
After four years of standstill the mill was given to the council of Kühnitzsch municipal as a technical monument for preservation. You could literally see the moribund condition. By investing many hours after work in 1979 Kühnitzsch citizens carried out extensive repairs incuding a new corrugated aluminium roof within the National Integration (NAW). That’s how they actively saved our mill from falling to ruin.
Some active employees of culture bundle section numismatics led by Fritz Winkler, succeeded to win the interest of culture bundle of the DDR to accomplish the restauration together. In hundrets of voluntary working hours they realized what outsiders haven‘t thought to be possible: They brought the mill back into a presentable condition. They replaced the grinding pass drive gear and repaired the four rods.
Repairs in 1979
The vital part is still missing
Repaired mill without rods in May 1986, photo: Deutsche Fotothek
Back to life
Günter Hübner, September 2009
In June 1992 new sail rods were added. Different from that of its predecessors with shutters the sails are now covered with sailcloth to give it more wind-loading. In a job creation program (ABM) within the home and school association which started in 2001 Günter Hübner overhauled a large part of the mill. Through his knowledge after almost 40 years he brought rods together with main shaft and cog wheel in rotation again. It was a unique experience on Day of the Open Monument 2001!
1994 übernimmt der neugegründete Heimat- und Schulverein Kühnitzsch/ Körlitz e. V. die Pflege und Betreuung der Bockwindmühle. Die erste große Maßnahme beginnt 1998 mit der Eindeckung des Mühlendaches mit kanadischen Holzschindeln aus Rotzeder. Die kosten belaufen sich auf 27.650,86 DM.
Ab 2007 dreht sich auch unser Mühlenhaus wieder wie in vergangener Zeit. Durch den langen Stillstand des alten HATZ-Motors und den zurückgelassenen Flüssigkeiten im Inneren, ist dieser außer Gefecht gesetzt und muss ebenfalls in mühevoller Kleinarbeit wiederhergestellt werden. Nach langer Stille ums Mühlenhaus erklingt 2009 endlich wieder der kräftige Motorensound des Einzylinders und wird im November feierlich eingeweiht.
Auch an Treppenpodest und Außentreppe nagt der Zahn der Zeit. Um allen einen sicheren Aufstieg zum Mühlenhaus zu gewähren, wird 2010 eine neue Außentreppe montiert. Der Austausch des alten Außenelevators (Gurtbecherwerk) folgt in Kürze. Die morschen und allen Wettern ausgesetzten Ruten werden im Oktober 2011 gegen neue aus Lärchenholz eingetauscht.
Demontage der alten Ruten, April 2011
Zuschnitt: Sägewerk Schauer in Werda im Vogtland, August 2011
Bau der Ruten in der Zimmerei Steuber in Kühnitzsch, September 2011
Zimmerei Steuber, Oktober 2011
Was zunächst im stillen Kämmerlein am Schreibtisch als technische Zeichnung entsteht, wird in Gemeinschaftsarbeit mit dem Sägewerk Schauer, der Zimmerei Steuber, dem Metall- und Anlagenbau Kühren und mit Dach- u. Baudienstleistungen Karsten Kaltofen realisiert. Die Kosten für die Lärchenholzruten belaufen sich auf 25.994,60 €. Dank zahlreicher Sponsoren kann der Verein das Projekt stemmen. Zusätzlich wird mit dem Raumausstatter Lehmann aus Meltewitz an der Segeltuchbespannung getüftelt.
2012 wechselt Günter Hübner neun Fenster der Mühle aus, die von Karl und Peter Helbig aus Kühnitzsch hergestellt und gesponsert werden.
Resisted all weather for 200 years
photo: Manuela Sopart
Zum 200-jährigen Jubiläum der Bockwindmühle wählt die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Mühlenkunde und Mühlenerhaltung (DGM) Kühnitzsch für die Eröffnungsveranstaltung des Deutschen Mühlentages.
Zu diesem Zeitpunkt ist bereits das gesamte technische Innenleben einschließlich der Transmission wieder im Gange. Einzig die Haferquetsche auf dem zweiten Mahlboden ist aus Platzmangel und Sicherheitsgründen nicht mit in die Transmission eingebunden.
To put it in the words of the miller: Glück zu!
Mill with young wheat in the background in April 2019, photo: Robin Keymer